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научное издание МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана

НАУКА и ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Издатель ФГБОУ ВПО "МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана". Эл № ФС 77 - 48211.  ISSN 1994-0408

Процесс комплектования заказов на складе. Обзор

# 03, март 2015
DOI: 10.7463/0315.0763161
Файл статьи: SE-BMSTU...o183.pdf (1136.63Кб)
автор: Коробков Е. В.

УДК 658

Россия,  МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана

В статье описываются основные складские функции — перемещение, хранение и передача информации, а также связи между типовыми складскими операциями (прием, перемещение, распределение в ячейку хранения, сборка, накопление и сортировка, кросс-докинг, отгрузка). Представлена классификация систем комплектования заказов по наличию ручного труда, а также перечислены внешние (маркетинговые каналы, структура потребительского спроса, структура пополнения запасов и уровень инвентаризации поставщиков, общий спрос на продукцию, состояние экономики) и внутренние (уровень механизации, доступность информации, размерность склада, способ отправления на отгрузку, тип зонирования, способ выделения заказов по партиям, метод распределения хранения, метод маршрутизации) факторы, влияющие на сложность проектирования систем. Перечислены основные критерии оптимизации при проектировании складов. В статье представлен литературный обзор по следующим подзадачам планирования и оперирования процессом комплектования заказов. Задача проектирование планировки рассмотрена на двух уровнях — внешнем (задача планировки сооружения) и внутреннем (задача конфигурации проходов). Для задачи распределения товаров, или единиц складского учета, выделены следующие методы — случайное распределение, распределение в ближайшую свободную ячейку, выделенное распределение (по пространственно-ходовому индексу и частотно-ориентированное), а также распределение по классам и семействам (по принципу комплементарности и по контактной частоте). Задача группирования по партиям может быть выполнена двумя способами — группированием по артикулу (посевные и сберегательные алгоритмы) и группированием по временны́м окнам. Для задачи зонирования рассматриваются две стратегии — прогрессивная и синхронизированная, а также специальный метод «пожарных бригад». Представлена краткая библиография по задаче накопления и сортировки. Задача маршрутизации сборщиков заказов будет рассмотрена подробно в следующей статьей цикла «Процесс комплектования заказов на складе».

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